Dr Rajiv Desai

An Educational Blog




I had posted this comments on face book on 1/1/2010 as my website was not ready but the matter is so important for students that I decided to post it on my website to educate students.

Everything in universe that exists, living or non-living, has a dual mode of existence with each mode following a different set of logic/rationale to explain phenomena associated with such existence and the duality is spontaneous ,simultaneous and consistent with the existence of dual universe.

The universe allegedly came into existence with big bang 13.7 billion years ago with the creation of matter, energy, space and time ; along with laws to regulate them. The Earth, a planet on which we live being a part of solar system with the Sun being the star; and the Sun being a part of our galaxy the Milky Way; and our galaxy being a part of billions of galaxies in the universe.
At present, scientists as CERN are conducting experiments on large hadron collider (LHC) to study big bang, gravity, anti-matter etc.

The idea of duality of existence came into my mind to solve mysteries of universe, God, and life.
I myself had defined God in my comments posted as ‘ Quotable Quotes’ as a mathematical force which regulates all forces in universe like gravity, electromagnetic forces and nuclear forces. I am trying to improvise.

Matter means something that possess mass like proton having positive charge, electron having negative charge and neutron having no charge.
Anti-matter means something that also possesses mass but with reverse electrical polarity having negatively charged proton, positively charged electron (positron) and neutron having no charge. Anti-hydrogen is the simplest anti-matter atom having single negatively charged proton and single positively charged electron.
Space means absence of matter having negative mass, negative energy and repulsive gravity. The total mass of universe is near zero because positive mass of matter and negative mass of space balance each other.
Matter and energy are inter-convertible. The sun is a classical example of matter getting converted into energy. When matter and anti-matter meet each other, they annihilate each other and energy is produced in the form of gamma rays. When gamma rays are processed at a very high temperature, the energy is converted into a pair of electron and positron, creating matter and anti-matter from energy.
The universe is full of matter and no anti-matter because there exists a dual universe full of anti-matter and no matter.
The space is woven with time by Einstein and it is assumed that mutual antagonism between space-time and matter-energy is the cause of gravity, the limit of the speed of light, expanding universe and spherical planets etc.

It has been proved that both matter (sub-atomic particles) and energy (electromagnetic waves) exist in wave-form as well as particle-form simultaneously known as wave-particle duality. Also, matter and energy are not infinitely divisible.
For example, visible light which we all see daily exists in wave-form and particle-form (photon) simultaneously , and electron in every atom exists in both wave-form and particle-form simultaneously. As far as light is concerned, phenomena like polarization, diffraction and interference can be explained only on the basis of wave-form of light but photoelectric effect can be explained only on the basis of particle-form of light. So light exists in dual form all the time with each form having different set of logic to explain different phenomena associated with its dual existence .Even though electrons are traditionally classified as negatively charged particles, the phenomenon of diffraction of electrons from crystal planes in solid material can  be explained only on the basis of wave-form of electrons.


One of the great discoveries of 20’th century, ignored by media, is the experiment of French physicist Alain Aspect in 1982 which showed that every matter/energy particle knows what any other particle is doing, no matter how far they are from each other. For example, every electron knows what any other electron is doing anywhere in universe and every photon (light particle) knows what any other photon is doing anywhere in the universe. This communication between matter/energy, no matter how far they are, raises questions about Einstein’s postulate of the limit of the speed of light.
Experiments have shown that twin photons created from single photon and traveling in different directions ; when subjected to measurement of polarization/energy/timing of one of the photon; loses its indefinite path/state and gains a definite path/state and astonishingly the photon’s distant twin , no matter how far it is, experiences exactly the same metamorphosis at the same moment. Whether to call such a phenomenon as a mathematical correlation or communication between photons/electrons, no matter how far they are from each other, is not yet decided by physicists.
The truth is that the random choice of one photon/electron is echoed instantly by its distant partner who may be at the other end of the universe.
What is randomness? I will give one example.
When you leave your house to catch a taxi; nobody can predict which taxi you will hire because the process of taxi catching is random. Now, I tell you about all the taxies in the region of your house and knowledge about how the minds of all taxi drivers will react, then, you will accurately predict which taxi you will catch because you know which taxi is going to be around your house and which taxi driver will accept your request.
When you know all the variables in a given situation and know how every variable is going to behave in that situation at that time, then, randomness disappears. The random choice of electron/photon is random, not necessarily because randomness is inherent in them but also because of our intelligence’s inability to know all the variables and behavior of every variable at that time in the universe. So randomness and certainty exist simultaneously depending on knowledge of variables.

My own mathematical formula of Pi establishes relationship between straight line and curved line of a circle; proving existence of straightness and curvedness simultaneously in between any two points in the universe establishing the concept of universal straight circle.

Pi is defined as the ratio of the circumference of any circle to its diameter.

Pi = circumference/diameter.

Pi is constant irrespective of the size of the circle.

Pi is classified as an irrational number.

Pi denotes relationship between a straight line and a curved line of a circle.

Pi = 22/7 approximately = 3.14159 approximately.

I had calculated Pi way back in 1980 which I am making public today.



The students can see that only digit 2 is used in formula where n is the maximum natural number. I will give one example. Suppose, n = 5   then, formula will calculate as follows.


The calculator will calculate this equation as 3.140331156954

As n becomes greater and greater in number, Pi value will become as exact as possible.

The process will go on and on indefinitely but n can never become infinity.

This is a relationship between straightness and curvedness.


I think human intelligence has reached a limit but I am trying to improvise.
I can enlarge and enhance duality of existence further.
Life and death
Traditional intelligence and emotional intelligence
Sexual reproduction and asexual reproduction
Black and white
Love and hate
DNA and environmental influence on a living organism
Good and bad
God and devil

Imagine that time has become standstill, non-existent, a zero.
Then, light will become static, the wave-form and the particle-form of matter/energy will merge, straightness will merge with curvedness, life will merge with death, matter will merge with anti-matter, our universe will merge with dual universe, etc etc…
The duality of existence will cease once time becomes zero.
The key to the mysteries of universe, God and life is TIME.

So what is time anyway?
Newton has defined time to be absolute flowing from past to future equably without any external influence. Einstein defined time to be relative dependent on the motion/speed of the observer.
With great respect to these eminent physicists, I disagree.
I define time as the sole dimension of universe that allows duality of existence like wave-particle duality of energy/matter by creating distance of separation between events/motions. If there is no time, then, there will be no separation of distance between event/motion, then, dual existence of matter/energy will cease to exist.
Time is independent of space but the measurement of time varies from one observer to another because the observer itself is a part of matter/energy. However, if you have an independent observer outside universe, then, time will become absolute.
When you see a star in sky, you believe that the star exists as you are observing it. The truth is that the star existed 1 billion years ago and the light emitted by star took 1 billion years to reach earth because the star is 1 billion light year away. Today, the star may have become a black-hole and invisible. Today, you are observing the virtual image of star which existed 1 billion years ago.
Time is a distance of separation between the real existence and the virtual existence. When the virtual existence follows real existence as in our universe, time is positive. However, when virtual existence precedes real existence as in dual universe, time becomes negative. When real existence becomes virtual existence, time cease to exist. Time is also not above the principle of duality of existence having positive time in our universe and negative time in dual universe.
So mathematically, if our universe exists with matter and positive time, then, there must be a dual universe based on the principle of duality of existence having negative time and anti-matter with different scientific laws to regulate it; along with dual life and dual intelligence.

1) There is a dual existence of everything in universe and therefore a single frame of logic/rationale/laws cannot explain all phenomena associated with it.
2) The distinction between living and non-living matter is arbitrary because every electron/photon has consciousness albeit in too small amount to be appreciated by human intelligence.
3) Randomness and certainty coexist simultaneously depending on the knowledge of all variables.
Dr .Rajiv Desai. MD.
February 20, 2010
Every human being has a YES and a NO in his/her mind simultaneously for any situation.
This is a concept of duality of human decision.


Update on “Duality of Existence” with importance of Zero:


In physics, charge conservation is the principle that electric charge can neither be created nor destroyed. This does not mean that individual positive and negative charges cannot be created or destroyed. Electric charge is carried by subatomic particles such as electrons and protons, which can be created and destroyed. In particle physics, charge conservation means that in elementary particle reactions that create charged particles, equal numbers of positive and negative particles are always created, keeping the net amount of charge unchanged. Similarly, when particles are destroyed, equal numbers of positive and negative charges are destroyed. That is why when gamma rays are processed at a very high temperature, the energy is converted into a pair of electron and positron, creating matter and anti-matter from energy. The sum total of all positive and negative charges in the universe is zero. That means we have equal number (quantity) of positive and negative charges in the universe.


When electron is destroyed, its negative charge is lost along with positive charge of another proton, so proton becomes neutron. Suppose, if all electrons of the universe are destroyed, all protons will become neutrons, so we will have energy, neutrons and space. When all these neutrons are destroyed, we will have only energy (electromagnetic radiation) and space with positive time in this universe. So basically space is negative energy and the sum total of energy and space is zero. In the same way, in dual universe, when all positrons are destroyed, all anti-protons will become neutrons and when these neutrons are destroyed, we will have energy and space in negative time and of course, the sum total of energy and space is again zero. Also, the sum total of positive time and negative time is zero. In other words, the sum total of this universe with dual universe is zero. So retrospectively, on hindsight, one can logically postulate that both universes were created from zero simultaneously. Energy and space are opposite to each other. When energy is created from zero, equivalent space is created. Energy created electron & positrons; and also protons & anti-protons. Electron and proton together; and positron and anti-proton together got separated from each other by positive and negative time and propagated in two different universes. Protons can become neutron by losing positive charge and simultaneously electron loses charge and gets converted into energy.


Let me put it differently. Suppose, you have universe with say; 50 neutrons, 50 electrons and 50 protons. When one electron is destroyed and converted into energy, one proton simultaneously loses +ve charge and becomes neutron. The sum total of positive plus negative charges remains always zero; i.e. total number of +ve charges and –ve charges are same. So now we have 51 neutrons, 49 protons, 49 electrons and energy. Now destroy a neutron, we will have energy but no change in charges. Suppose, we destroy all neutrons, then we will have energy, space, protons and electrons. Now we try to destroy a proton, as positive charge is destroyed, simultaneously negative charge of electron will be destroyed. So we will have electron without charge which instantaneously get converted into energy. So if we destroy a proton when no neutrons are available to take its positive charge, automatically electron will be destroyed. So elementary particles electron and positron cannot exist without charge. The moment they lose charge, they get converted into energy. When electron loses charge, the energy in mass form becomes energy in the form of electromagnetic waves and flows off. That is why electron can behave in dual mode, particle as well as wave form. When proton loses charge, it becomes neutron and vice versa. Charge cannot exist without mass but mass can exist without charge (e.g. neutron).


Since energy and mass are inter-convertible; and since energy and space are opposite, space is manifestation of negative mass. As energy is condensed into mass, space can also be condensed into negative mass. Positive charge repels positive charge and attracts negative charge. In contrast, positive mass attracts positive mass (gravity) and positive mass repels negative mass. That is why we have space surrounding mass at sub-atomic level as well as at planetary level because space (-ve mass) cannot merge with positive mass. This duality exists as long as time flows. The moment time becomes zero, positive charge merges with negative charge, and positive mass (energy) merges with negative mass (space). And everything becomes zero. But time can become zero only if positive time and negative time merges. In other words, when everything becomes zero, both universes will become zero and everything will cease to exist. It is the time that propagates duality of existence no matter positive or negative time. As long as time exists, duality will exists.


Dr. Rajiv Desai. MD.

September 1, 2012 



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