Dr Rajiv Desai

An Educational Blog

NUCLEAR WEAPONS

NUCLEAR WEAPONS:
The Nuclear Weapon is defined as an explosive device which releases tremendous energy by the process of a nuclear reaction which could be nuclear fission or fusion or both.
It would have been better,had I had written this article as a nuclear physicist,had my mathematical formula of Pi was in school textbooks and had my talents harnessed for making the world a better place to live in.Anyway,I will still attempt as an ordinary doctor with monthly salary of rupees 25000 only…
There are various naturally occurring forces in the universe like gravitational forces,electromagnetic forces,nuclear forces etc etc.Nuclear forces bind protons and neutrons in the nucleas of any atom.It is the breakdown of these nuclear forces with resultant loss of mass which releases tremendous energy which can be used in a nuclear reactor to produce electricity or can be used in nuclear weapons to destroy human beings and infrastructure.
Nuclear fuels contain fissil material like 235U(uranium with atomic mass 235)and 239Pu(Plutonium with atomic mass 239).The amount of release-able energy contained in nuclear fuel is millions of times more than conventional fuel gasoline.
A typical atom bomb in a nuclear warhead releases energy equivalent to 1 million ton of TNT.
A typical hydrogen bomb in a nuclear warhead releases energy equivalent to 50 million tons of TNT.
When the nuclear warhead is detonated,the first effect is the heat wave which travels at the speed of light and burns everything in few miles at temprature of 10000 degree centigrade.Seconds later,shock wave travels and destroys every structure with in 15 kilometer of blast.Atom bombs dropped on the Japanese city of Hirosima and Nagasaki in the year 1945 by America killed 120000 innocent japanese civilians.Today’s A-bombs and H-bombs are far more powerful than the bombs of 1945.
NUCLEAR WARHEADS IN VARIOUS COUNTRIES:
America—-5535
Russia—-8800
Britain—400
China—-425
France—510
Israel—100 to 200
India—-70 to 100
Pakistan-15 to 60
North Korea-0 to 10
Iran has sufficient enriched uranium to make one A-bomb.
South Africa,Ukraine,Belarus and Kazakhstan had nuclear weapons but they have dismantled it.
THE NUMBER OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS POSSESSED BY THE WORLD CAN DESTROY THE WORLD MANY MANY TIMES.
There is a remote possibility that terrorists may acquire a nuclear weapon.The Al-Qaeda had tried to get Plutonium from Sudan.Various Rogue Nuclear scientists from Russia have tried to sell nuclear technology to rogue buyers for money.Pakistani scientist A.Q.Khan was involved in tranfer of nuclear technology to N.korea and Iran.These nuclear scientists sell nuclear technology for money; just like Glamour girls sell their bodies for money in a movie or commercials.I feel ashamed that my name has been associated with various glamour girls whose only contribution to the world was to sell their good looks for money under pretext of hard work.Nuclear scientists must understand that their intellectual and social status is million times higher than glamour girls and they should refrain from selling nuclear technology for money.
Nuclear deterrence is a strategy to ward off a potential nuclear strike by a nuclear weapon from another country; by threatening nuclear retaliation.
Nuclear Disarmament means dismantling nuclear weapons.
Various international agencies and treaties have come in force to control the spread of nuclear weapons.
1)IAEA(1957)
International atomic energy agency under UN umbrella promotes peaceful use of nuclear energy and inhibites military use of nuclear energy.
2)PTBT(1963)
Partial test ban treaty prohibits all nuclear tests except underground tests.France and China didnot sign it.
3)NPT(1968)
Nuclear non-proliferation treaty limits spread of nuclear weapons.189 countries have signed it.It’s objectives are non-proliferation,disarmament and peaceful use of nuclear energy.It is criticised as discriminatory.
4)CTBT(1996)
Comprehensive test ban treaty bans all nuclear tests.It is signed by 180 countries and ratified by 146 countries.America has signed it but not ratified it yet.
DISCUSSIONS:
If you want to become popular in India or Pakistan; you have to support possession of nuclear weapons; otherwise you will be labelled as un-patriotic.
It is nonsense.
I condemn nuclear tests by India and Pakistan.
I condemn India and Pakistan for not signing NPT and CTBT.
I condemn the concept of minimum nuclear deterrence.
The supporters of nuclear deterrence say that it has prevented nuclear war since 1945.They also say that we must have nuclear weapons because some rogue states or terrorists can acquire it and we must have ability to retaliate.I respectfully disagree.
I will give an example.
Nuclear Deterrence:
You have a gun and I also have a gun so that we will not shoot at eachother for the fear of being hit by retaliation.
Nuclear Disarmament:
You donot have a gun and I also donot have a gun so that we will not shoot at eachother even if we are sufficiently provoked.
Net result is not shooting at eachother.
Which is better,deterrence or disarmament?
Which gives peace of mind,deterrence or disarmament?
If a rogue state or terrorists indeed acquire a nuclear weapon,then,they will use it even if rest of the world has ability to retaliate.
Also,there is a strong possibility of accidental nuclear strike.
THE MORAL OF THE STORY:
1)All the nuclear weapons must be dismantled in a time-bound fashion over a period of few decades.
2)All nuclear testing must be banned for ever.
3)People must become aware of the destructive power of nuclear weapons and dissociate patriotism from nuclear weapons.
Dr.Rajiv Desai.MD.

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